Monday, October 17, 2011

Powerpoint Presentation - History of Time

History of Time

Presentation Transcript

History of time and its Facts

Primitive methods of measuring time: 
Primitive methods of measuring time Prehistoric man, by simple observation of the stars, changes in the seasons, day and night began to come up with very primitive methods of measuring time. This was necessary for planning nomadic activity, farming, sacred feasts, etc. The earliest time measurement devices before clocks and watches were the sundial, hourglass and water clock.

Primitive methods of measuring time: 
Primitive methods of measuring time The forerunners to the sundial were poles and sticks as well as larger objects such as pyramids and other tall structures. Later the more formal sundial was invented. It is generally a round disk marked with the hours like a clock. It has an upright structure that casts a shadow on the disk - this is how time is measured with the sundial.

Sundials Egyptians measured the time of day by using Sundials. Sundials rely on the sun to tell time. These early timekeepers discovered that hours are shorter in the winter and longer in the summer. Sundials can only be used during the day to tell time. After a while, the Egyptians and other ancient societies realized that the Sun rose and set in different places in the Summer and winter.  In fact, the sun never took the same course on any one day throughout the year!  They tried everything, until they Realized that if they would just put the post of the sundial in at a special angle, it would work all year

Water Clocks : 
Water Clocks A water clock or clepsydra Greek κλέπτειν kleptein ,'to steal'; ὕδωρ hudor , 'water‘” is anytimepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into ‘inflow type’ or out from ‘outflow type’ a vessel where the amount is then measured. Made up of two containers, water drips from the higher container to the lower container. The point at which the water is collected raises a floating device which triggers the pointer to mark the hour. These clocks worked better than the sundial because they were able to tell time at night. In later years these clocks were adopted by the American Indians.

Candles : 
Candles A candle clock is a thin candle with consistently spaced markings (usually with numbers), that when burned, indicate the passage of periods of time. While no longer used today, candle clocks provided an effective way to tell time indoors, at night, or on a cloudy day.

Incense Clocks : 
Incense Clocks In addition to water, mechanical, and candle clocks, incense clocks were used in the Far East, and were fashioned in several different forms. An incense stick clock was an incense stick with calibrations, most were elaborate, sometimes having threads, with weights attached, at even intervals. The weights would drop onto a platter or gong below, signifying that a certain amount of time had elapsed. Sticks of incense with different scents were also used, so that the hours were marked by a change in fragrance.

Hourglass The hourglass is sometimes referred to as a sand clock or a sandglass. Like other timepieces, it needs to be carefully calibrated. The hourglass maker must test the instrument and fine tune it to measure the correct length of time. There are many factors that contribute to the ability of an hourglass to accurately measure time. The type and quality of sand is key. It must have a rate of flow that does not fluctuate. Sand that is too coarse will wear away the glass, eventually making the neck too large. Most important is the ratio of the neck (the hole, or tube) width to the diameter of the sand particles.

Bells King Charles V of France decided that all Paris church bells must ring at the same time as the Royal Palace. This stopped the ringing of bells during prayer time. The name “Clock” originally meant “Bell.”

Astronomical Clocks: 
Astronomical Clocks The term is used to refer to any clock that shows, in addition to the time of day, astronomical information. This could include the location of the sun and moon in the sky, the age and phase of the moon, the position of the sun on the ecliptic and the current zodiac sign, the sidereal time, and other astronomical data such as the moon's nodes (for indicating eclipses) or a rotating star map

Inventions The first public mechanical Clock was built into a church in Milan around 1335, it only had one hand for the hours, and it travelled clockwise to mimic the path of a sundial shadow. In 1656, Christian Huygens, a Dutch scientist, made the first pendulum clock, regulated by a mechanism with a "natural" period of oscillation Around 1675, Huygens developed the balance wheel and spring assembly, still found in some of today's wrist watches. In Germany Franz Anton Ketterer uses pipes in his clocks for a two tone cuckoo noise in about 1750, and the first Cuckoo Clocks are made. Time keeping remained the same for a while; until 1839 the Telegraph was invented, allowing the instant transmission of time signals.

Modern Inventions: 
Modern Inventions

Mechanical Clocks: 
Mechanical Clocks The difficulty in inventing a mechanical clock was to figure out a way in which a wheel no bigger than a room could turn at the same speed as the Earth, but still be turning more or less continuously. If this could be accomplished, then the wheel became a mini-Earth and could tell the time. For, after all, the time is nothing more nor less than how far the Earth has turned today.

Pendulum clock: 
Pendulum clock Galileo made an amazing contribution to the world of time, simply by not paying attention in church.  The year was 1581 and Galileo was 17.  He was standing in the Cathedral of Pisa watching the huge chandelier swinging back and forth from the ceiling of the cathedral.  Galileo noticed that no matter how short or long the arc of the chandelier was, it took exactly the same amount of time to complete a full swing. As the pendulum swings left to right, a wheel with teeth turns the hour and minute hands. The second hand on the clock was developed at this time. This clock was more accurate than any previous clock invented.

Wristwatches : 
Wristwatches n 1904, Alberto Santos-Dumont, an early aviator, asked his friend, a French watchmaker called Louis Cartier, to design a watch that could be useful during his flights. The wristwatch had already been invented by Patek Philippe, in 1868, but only as a "lady’s bracelet watch“. As pocket watches were unsuitable, Louis Cartier created the Santos wristwatch, the first man's wristwatch and the first designed for practical use. Wristwatches gained in popularity during World War I, when officers found them to be more convenient than pocket watches in battle.

Marine Chronometers : 
Marine Chronometers Marine chronometers are clocks used at sea as time standards, to determine longitude bycelestial navigation. Marine chronometers keep the time of a fixed location—usually Greenwich Mean Time—allowing seafarers to determine longitude by comparing the local high noon to the clock. According to COSC, a chronometer is a high-precision watch, capable of displaying the seconds and housing a movement that has been tested over several days, in different positions, and at different temperatures, by an official, neutral body.

Atomic clocks : 
Atomic clocks Atomic clocks are the most accurate timekeeping devices known to date. Accurate to within a few seconds over many thousands of years, they are used to calibrate other clocks and timekeeping instruments. Atomic clocks have employed other elements, such as hydrogen and rubidium vapor, offering greater stability—in the case of hydrogen clocks—and smaller size, lower power consumption, and thus lower cost (in the case of rubidium clocks).

Timeline Trivia: 
Timeline Trivia Daylight Savings Time/War Time Although Ben Franklin originally had the idea in 1784, daylight savings time was not adopted in the U.S. until World War I. It was a way to save fuel needed to produce electric power. In 1966 Congress established the Uniform Time Act. Daylight savings time was implemented throughout the nation.

Thursday, July 7, 2011

Powerpoint presentation on Money

powerpoint presentation on Mo...

Presentation Transcript


Money Numismatics is the scientific study of money .

Oldest Coins:

Oldest Coins Ancient Greek coins. Obverse (front) and reverse (back) of a coin of Mithradates , King of Pontus, about 100 B.C. (above); and of a coin of Alexander the Great, 300's B.C. (left). The custom of showing a ruler or head of government on the obverse of coins has continued to the present day Obverse and reverse of a Roman solidus of the emperor Constantine III (early A.D. 400's) As the history of money tells, the first people who are known to have used coins as money were the Lydians , Lydian electrum trite (4.71g, 13x10x4 mm). This coin type, made of a gold and silver alloy, was in all likelihood the world's first, minted by King Alyattes in Sardis, Lydia, Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), c. 610-600 BC.



Coins From Different Countries:

Coins From Different Countries American Coins Japanese Coins European Coins

Barter System:

Barter System It's hard to imagine our world without money. A long time ago there were no coins. There was no such thing as money. Before money was invented people had to get their food, clothing and other needs by trading things. There is a special name for this kind of trading. The name is barter. The word barter comes from a French word, barater , which means " to trade ." When you swap baseball cards with a friend or trade your chocolate pudding for a cookie at lunchtime you are bartering because you are exchanging something you have for something you want.

Barter System:

Barter System People traded some of the things they didn't need for things they wanted or needed. Even then people had different jobs and skills. Some people were good hunters, some were better farmers than others, some people made beautiful clay pots, some were skilled carpenters, and so on. There were many different ways in which these people bartered, or traded, for things they needed. Most of the time, bartering was a good way of getting things. But sometimes there were problems. What happened when you had something to trade but nobody wanted it? What happened when the traders couldn't agree on what was a fair trade? The following have all been used as money in different parts of the world: Pepper – Europe Stones – Pacific Islands (in Micronesia, stone money is still used) Coils of red feathers – Pacific Islands Dogs’ teeth – New Guinea Bread – Iraq Iron nails – Scotland Whales’ teeth – Fiji

The Indian Rupee:

The Indian Rupee Ever since the dawn of civilization, man has been trading with each other. In the ancient times when there was no concept of money, people used barter system. In this system goods were exchanged with each other instead of paying money. Gradually, with development, metals were used to cast coins. The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant " र" ( Ra) with an added horizontal bar. It is also derived from the English consonant "R" without the vertical line, with added two horizontal bars, (similar in comparison with Yen and Euro symbols) The origin of the word "rupee" is found in the word rūp or rūpā , which means "silver" in many Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi. The Sanskrit word rupyakam ( Devanagari : रूप्यकम्) means coin of silver. The derivative word Rūpaya was used to denote the coin introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his reign from 1540 to 1545 CE. The original Rūpaya was a silver coin weighing 175 grains troy (about 11.34 grams. The coin has been used since then, even during the times of British India. Formerly the rupee was divided into 16 annas , 64 paise , or 192 pies .

Indian Rupees:

Indian Rupees

Paper Money :

Paper Money Among the earliest issues of paper rupees were those by the Bank of Hindustan (1770–1832), the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (1773–75, established by Warren Hastings), the Bengal Bank (1784–91), amongst others. Reserve Bank issues during British India The Reserve Bank of India was formally inaugurated on Monday, April 1, 1935 with its Central Office at Calcutta. The bank issued the first five rupee note bearing the portrait of George VI in 1938. This was followed by Rs. 10 in February, Rs 100 in March and Rs 1,000 and Rs 10,000 in June 1938. The first Reserve Bank issues were signed by the second Governor, Sir James Taylor . In August 1940, the one-rupee note was reintroduced as a wartime measure, as a Government note with the status of a rupee coin. Bank Notes After Independence After Independence of India , the government brought out the new design Re. 1 note in 1949. Initially it was felt that the King's portrait be replaced by a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi . Finally however, the Lion Capital of Asoka was chosen. The language panel on the Indian rupee banknotes has 15 of the 22 national languages of India.

Plastic Money:

Plastic Money This is the era of plastic money - credit & debit cards . They have changed the face of banking in India. Now, people can remotely access their money through these plastics. Does it make sense to introduce children to plastic money? If yes than , how and when ? Parents hold strong views on this topic. It is widely believed that unless children understand the basics of money through traditional sources like cash management, introducing them to plastic money can be harmful..

Plastic Money:

A credit card is a form of plastic money, which allows people to spend now and pay back the money later. Credit cards are not linked to any bank account. The interim period - between the time money is spent & is paid is called 'credit period'. While using credit cards, people need to actively remember to pay up the card bill due else interest rate is charged on the pending payments. Using credit cards is similar to taking small loans at small intervals of time and repaying the same timely. And if the due payment is not done, interest is charged! A debit card allows expenditure only to the extent of funds in the account. And hence ensures that no overspending occurs. Debit cards did not exist 10 years back; only ATM cards did. An ATM card can be used to withdraw money from ATM's( automated teller machine also popularly known as any time money). In the last decade, ATM cards have been combined as debit cards and the same plastic can be used both for withdrawing money and making purchases. Debit cards are fast replacing cash or cheques. People actively use debit cards to pay their bills; and since there is no fear of extra expenditure/ delayed payments and hence high interest. Plastic Money

Plastic Money:

Plastic Money All credit and debit cards are affiliated to two major issuers-VISA and Master Card . Master Card and VISA are global non-profit organizations who promote the growth of the card business throughout the world. T hey have built vast network of Member Establishments so that customers can use the cards worldwide for their debit and credit purchases. AMEX (American Express) and Diners Club card are well known branded charge cards. They have their own merchant establishments and tie ups and does not depend on the network of Master card or VISA. These care are typically meant for the high income group categories and companies. Charge Cards: A Charge card has all features of credit card. But, after using the charge card the entire payments of the bills has to be made by the due date. If it is failed to be done, then the client is likely to be considered as a defaulter and he has to pay a steep late payment charges. But in case of Credit cards, the client is not declared as a defaulter if he misses to pay by due

Plastic Money:

Smart Cards : A smart Card contains an electronic chip which is used to store Cash. This is most useful to pay for small purchases for example in Fairs, coffee shops etc. No identification, signature or payment authorization is required for using this card. Affinity Card: The card issuer has a tie up with popular organizations and institutions which are often non-profit organizations like Stanchart Cricket Cards or City WWF card. Plastic Money

Plastic Money:

Plastic Money Photo Card : When a Photo is imprinted on the card, it helps to identify the user of the credit card and is considered to be safer. In many cases, Photo card can also be used as identity card. Global Card : Global cards can be used as credit cards instead of cash and traveler cheques while traveling abroad to foreign countries for business or personal reasons. Add On Cards : It is a privilege offered to the spouse, parents, Children or other family members of the original card holder. Normally, an issuing bank permits two add on cards per credit card. All expenses incurred on add on card are billed to the primary card holder. Petro Card : Some Petroleum companies allow customers to pay for the fuel through electronic medium. It offers a scheme of gifting the points to the customers, when they pay for the fuel using petro card. It is convenient, secured and speedy mode of transaction. Co-branded credit cards like IOC- Citi bank and HPCL-ICICI bank are the co-branded petro cards available in the market.

Plastic Money:

Plastic Money Such cards may be used for following purposes :- Purchase of air, rail and road tickets for traveling For the Settlement of hotel bills . For Cash withdrawals . For the Settlement of club bills . For the Payment of purchase bills . For the Payment of insurance premium . Refilling the fuels in vehicles . Payment of phone, water and electricity bills . Payment of school/ education expenses.

Different bank accounts:

Different bank accounts Different bank accounts offer different features – such as cheque books, cash cards, overdrafts etc. Find the one that's right for you. Basic bank account This will usually: receive money give you a cash card let you set up Direct Debits or standing orders to pay bills act as a stepping stone to a current account allow you to do business at the bank counter let you check your balance and withdraw cash at Post Office® branches let you check your balance and withdraw cash from a cash machine. Current account This will usually: receive money give you a cash or debit card let you set up Direct Debits and standing orders to pay bills to give you a cheque book and guarantee card allow you to check your balance and withdraw cash from a cash machine. Savings account This will usually: pay you interest on your money. It may offer: a passbook access to your money via a cash machine.

Types of Personal Bank Accounts in India :

Types of Personal Bank Accounts in India Savings bank accounts are the most popular account. They promote the habit of saving money, as the fund is locked for a certain period. The rate of interest is around 4 percent. The minimum balance to be maintained in the public sector banks is 100 Indian Rupees, but if you are planning to make more transactions and need a checkbook, the minimum balance to be maintained is 500 Indian Rupees. Fixed deposit account is also known as Term Deposits . In a Fixed deposit account, a certain sum of money is deposited in the bank for a specified time period with a fixed rate of interest. The rate of interest depends on the maturity period.

A currency is a unit of exchange and hence a kind of money and medium of exchange. Currency includes paper or polymer banknotes and metal coins. :

A currency is a unit of exchange and hence a kind of money and medium of exchange. Currency includes paper or polymer banknotes and metal coins. India Indian rupee United States United States dollar $ United Kingdom British pound £ Thailand Thai baht ฿ South Africa South African rand R Russia Russian ruble руб. Mexico Mexican peso $ Spain Euro € Malaysia Malaysian ringgit RM Japan Japanese yen ¥ France Euro € Germany Euro € Egypt Egyptian pound £ or ج.م

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Sunday, May 15, 2011

Weather and Seasons

Weather and Seasons

Weather and Seasons:

Weather and Seasons

Weather and Seasons:

Weather and Seasons Weather Our Earth is surrounded by a layer of air called atmosphere. Sometimes air becomes hot and sometimes it becomes cold. This change in air is known as weather. Weather keeps changing from day to day and sometimes from hour to hour. Seasons -When weather remains the same for a long period, we call it season. We have some months when it is very hot, some months when it rains heavily and some months when it is cold and chilly. We also have spring and autumn when it is neither too hot nor too cold.


Seasons Spring is a time When children play, Flower bloom And all is gay. Summer is hot, To stay cool, Everyone wants a dip In the pool. Monsoon clouds Filled with rain, Make you feel, Cool again Autumn is short And the leaves begin to fall, Playing in the open Is fun for all. Winter is cold. On sunny days People bask In the sun’s rays.


Season April and May are the hot months of the year. This period is called the summer season. The sun is at its hottest and brightest during this time. People like to stay indoors and use fans, coolers or air conditioners. People like to have cold water, cold drinks and ice cream.

Rainy Season:

Rainy Season After the hot summer comes the rainy season or monsoon season. The rain comes in June, July and August. Cool winds from the sea bring the rain clouds. We use raincoats and umbrellas to protect ourselves from rain. The rain fills the dried ponds, wells ,lakes and rivers. It brings water for crops. The trees and plants look green during the monsoon season.

Autumn Season:

Autumn Season September and October are the autumn months. Autumn season follows the rains. This is a short season. It is neither hot nor cold. In many places, the leaves of the trees turn yellow as they dry up and fall during autumn.

Slide 7:

November, December and January are the winter months. The air becomes cold and the sun is not very bright. People wear woolen clothes. They light fires and heaters to keep warm. During winter, it snows in the mountains in North India. Lakes and ponds freeze. People enjoy being out in the sun during winter. It is not as cold as in other parts of India


Season February and March are the Spring months. During the spring season, it is neither hot nor cold. The days are very pleasant. Trees and plants are full of fresh leaves and colourful flowers in spring . People enjoy going for picnics in spring.

Changing Seasons:

Changing Seasons Summer , winter and the rain, Makes a yearly seasonal chain. Some months are hot, some are cold, And some months are Neither hot nor cold. It’s cold in the mountains, And warm in the plains. And when its monsoon, There is thunder and rain.

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Saturday, April 23, 2011

National Symbols

National Symbols

Slide 1:
National Identity Elements of India. National Symbols

Slide 2:

These symbols are intrinsic to the Indian identity and heritage. Indians of all demographics backgrounds across the world are proud of these National Symbols as they infuse a sense of pride and patriotism in every Indian's heart. National Symbols

Slide 3:
National Flag National Bird National Flower National Tree National Anthem National River National Aquatic Animal State Emblem National Calendar National Animal National Song National Fruit National Game Currency Symbol National Symbols

Slide 4:
The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron ( kesaria ) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. The top saffron colour , indicates the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The green shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka . Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947. National Flag

Slide 5:
The Indian Peacock, Pavo cristatus , the national bird of India, is a colourful , swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight. National Bird

Slide 6:
Lotus ( Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn ) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial. India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). National Flower

Slide 7:
Indian fig tree, Ficus bengalensis , whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. National Tree

Slide 8:
The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in this information sheet for general information and guidance. The National Anthem - Full & Short Versions The composition consisting of the words and music of the first stanza of the late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore's song known as "Jana Gana Mana " is the National Anthem of India. It reads as follows: Jana- gana - mana - adhinayaka , jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata . Punjab- Sindh -Gujarat-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya- Himachala -Yamuna- Ganga Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga . Tava shubha name jage , Tava shubha asisa mage, Gahe tava jaya gatha , Jana- gana - mangala - dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata . Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, Jaya jaya jaya , jaya he! National Anthem

Slide 9:
The Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms of mountains, valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the Alaknanda , Yamuna, Son, Gumti , Kosi and Ghagra . There are two dams on the river - one at Haridwar and the other at Farakka . The Ganges River Dolphin is an endangered animal that specifically habitats this river. The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth. Key religious ceremonies are held on the banks of the river at cities such as Varanasi, Haridwar and Allahabad. National River

Slide 10:
River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water. Dolphins have a fairly thick body with light grey-brown skin often with a hue of pink. The fins are large and the dorsal fin is triangular and undeveloped. This mammal has a forehead that rises steeply and has very small eyes. River Dolphins are solitary creatures and females tend to be larger than males. They are locally known as susu , because of the noise it makes while breathing. National Aquatic Animal

Slide 11:
The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka . In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra). In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning 'Truth Alone Triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script. State Emblem

Slide 12:
The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes: Gazette of India. News broadcast by All India Radio. Calendars issued by the Government of India. Government communications addressed to the members of the public. Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year. National Calendar

Slide 13:
The magnificent tiger , Panthera Tigris is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, 'Project Tiger' was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering an area of 37,761 sq km. National Animal

Slide 14:
The song Vande Mataram , composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji , was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana- gana - mana . The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza: Vande Mataram ! Sujalam , suphalam , malayaja shitalam , Shasyashyamalam , Mataram ! Vande Mataram ! Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim , Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim , Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim , Sukhadam varadam , Mataram ! Vande Mataram , Vande Mataram ! National Song

Slide 15:
A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica , the mango is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours . Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial. The poet Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Mughal emperor Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga , Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh . National Fruit

Slide 16:
India has conquered the podium when it comes to the game of Hockey . Our nation has an excellent record with eight Olympic gold medals. Indian hockey's golden period was from 1928-56, when the Indian hockey team won six successive Olympic gold medals. Team also won the 1975 World Cup besides two more medals (silver and a bronze). The Indian Hockey Federation (External website that opens in a new window) gained global affiliation in 1927 and joined the International Hockey Federation (FIH) National Game

Slide 17:
The symbol of Indian Rupee typifies India's international identity for money transactions and economic strength. The Indian Rupee sign is an allegory of Indian ethos. The symbol is an amalgam of Devanagari "Ra" and the Roman Capital "R" with two parallel horizontal stripes running at the top representing the national flag and also the "equal to" sign. The Indian Rupee sign was adopted by the Government of India on 15th July, 2010. Currency Symbol

Slide 18:
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